Glossary

Accreditation – the granting of official authorization for a journalist to be in a particular place or event (press conference, conferences, etc.).

Advertising equivalency (Advertising value equivalency – AVE) – a method to measure what your editorial coverage would cost if it were advertising space (or time).

Advertorial – a piece of text in a newspaper or magazine which is advertising a product or service (advertizing + audience, information + commerce).

Aged Domains – an aged domain is a domain that has been in indexed by Google at least two or more years ago and it's a critical component of any successful SEO campaign. Google penalizes new domain names, making it very difficult to rank any keywords at the #1 position or even on the first page of search results for that matter in the beginning. Purchasing or having an aged domain will be one of the critical factors in your success for ranking a site high for any given keyword.

ALT tags – Also known as alternative tags, these are the tags that appear within the HTML <img> tags that present the alternate data to the search engines to provide a description of what the image is. For optimal search engine rankings you should have at least one image ALT tag that correlates with your site or page's primary keyword.

Annual report – a comprehensive report on a company’s activities throughout the preceding year. Annual reports are intended to give shareholders and other interested people information about the company’s activities and financial performance, corporate culture and social responsibility, openness and transparency, etc.

Audience – the group of people who receive or are exposed to a media product, or at whom a piece of advertising is aimed.

Audience profile – classification of audience by particular characteristics, i.e. the age range, sex, lifestyles, etc.

B

Backgrounder – factual information on a particular topic, e.g. company profile, products and services, history and development, which can be used for writing stories, preparing speeches, or briefing employees.

Backlinking – likely to be your biggest undertaking when it comes to SEO, backlinking is the effort involved with creating hyperlinks that link back to your website. 

Banner advertising – a banner ad is an advertisement that is embedded into a website. The ad itself links to the advertiser's website – or landing page. The intent is for visitors to click on the ad and go to the advertiser's page. Banner ads often use animation to help draw attention to the ad.

Black-Hat SEO – Black-Hat SEO is a term used to describe a SEO tactics that are not compliant with Google's Webmaster Guidelines. Black-Hat SEO techniques are frowned upon by the search engine industry. Examples of Black-Hat SEO techniques are trying to hide keywords within HTML comment tags or trying to cloak pages.

Booklet – an information piece giving further details about company: its profile, market positions, list of goods and services, as well as company management and team.

Branding – the practice of attaching distinctive associations and meanings to a product, which identify it and assure consumers of its quality and the reputation of the company producing it.

Breadcrumb – a navigational aid used on websites, breadcrumbs not only allow users to quickly jump through informational sections on the site, they also provide high SEO value by allowing the search engine spiders access to quickly navigate  and spider through a site, indexing data faster and more efficiently.

Briefing – an oral presentation where the speaker presents a concise array of facts without inclusion of extensive supporting material, used in extreme, force-majeure situations.

Brochure – a high quality promotional piece (booklet or pamphlet) that contains advertising and descriptive details of products or services, as well as contact details

BTL (below the line) – relating to advertising that is not mainstream, i.e. direct mail, exhibitions, point of sale materials, print and sales literature, etc. (e.g. mailouts, beer mats, aerial advertising, carrier bags)

By-liner – a material written with a byline and other credit, usually by famous people.

C

Cause marketing (or Cause-related marketing) – a type of marketing involving the cooperative efforts of a "for profit" business and a non-profit organization for mutual benefit. The term is sometimes used more broadly and generally to refer to any type of marketing effort for social and other charitable causes, including in-house marketing efforts by non-profit organizations. Cause marketing differs from corporate giving (philanthropy) as the latter generally involves a specific donation that is tax deductible, while cause marketing is a marketing relationship generally not based on a donation.

Charity promotion – a company provides tangible assets, intangible assets or other corporate resources, thus drawing attention of the public to a particular problem, assisting in fund-raising, involving volunteers.

Conference – a large special meeting of people that confer about a certain topic, organized to discuss matters or find solution

Content analysis – a technique used to study written materials by breaking it into meaningful units, using carefully applied rules. It involves analysis of language, certain words, or certain activities that appear in the chosen media. The objective, systematic and quantitative description of the manifest content of a communication.

Contextual advertising – a form of targeted advertising for advertisements appearing on websites or other media, selected and served by automated systems; an effective solution for product or service promotion.

Continuity – the act of maintaining a continuous stable level of advertising activity or the scheduling of media exposures of a particular advertisement or campaign within a given period.

Corporate bulletin, Newspaper, Journal – a material that contains useful information and expresses a company position on a particular issue.

Corporate philanthropy – a company supports with donations charity organizations or campaigns directly, mostly in form grants, presents and/or goods and services.

Corporate social marketing – the systematic application of marketing efforts by a company to achieve specific behavioral goals for a social good, can be applied to improve public health, or security, contribute to environmental protection or promote society’s well being as a whole.

Corporate social responsibility – the extent to which a business organization behaves in a socially, environmentally, and financially responsible way.

Coverage – normally used to describe the prime geographical area reached by a medium. Can also be used to show a degree to which a medium or an advertising schedule will reach a particular type of audience.

CPC – Cost-per-click, or CPC, is a term used in online paid advertising to indicate click through percentages. The cost per click is calculated by diving the number of clicks with the total amount spent on the advertisement. For example, if you spent $100 on an ad and 200 clicks was received; the CPC would be $0.50 cents.

CSS – Cascading Style Sheets, also known as CSS, is a style sheet presentation markup language that is used to position elements, layouts, colors, fonts, images, and construct a Web page on the whole. While CSS is used primarily in styling HTML Web pages, it is also used to style XML and other documents.

Cut-in – a commercial or promotional video to replace the original advertisement of when broadcasting in a particular region or market.

D

Degustation (or Tasting) – most popular type of promotion campaigns; recommended for market launch of new brands or expansion of product mix within one brand.

Desk research – obtaining facts and information from sources which are readily accessible (content analysis of mass media, work with statistical data, completed researches, etc.)

Digest – is a selection of news pieces, collected in a specific time period and classified according to categories, subjects and other characteristics. Such form is effective for retainer monitoring (daily, weekly and monthly) which helps to follow the immense information flow and not get lost.

Dofollow Links – Dofollow links are an attribute associated with an HTML hyperlink that tell a search engine to continue to link through to the site, disseminating some of the site's important link juice. These are very powerful types of links that work well when pointed to your site or to a link pyramid that leads to your site. When a search engine sees a Dofollow link they continue linking through to the site, passing part of the SEO link juice that would have been offered to that page had the link been a Nofollow link.

Duplicate Content – in the search engine world, content is king, but duplicate content is the court jester. Copying large chunks of content to your site is one of the biggest no-no's in the industry. The search engines will figure it out sooner or later and you will be demoted in the rankings. If you're going to do SEO right, make sure all the content is high-quality and unique content that's well researched.

E

Event (Special event) – a planned promotional happening or a news hook that has a central focus and captures the attention and involvement of the target audience, used for attainment of PR objectives, requires financial outlays and organizational preparation.

Expert poll – a special type of polling used when it is necessary to ascertain opinion of a particular group of specialist on a particular issue.

F

Fact sheet (Information for the press) – a type of backgrounder, a sheet of paper giving information about a product or service which can be used for publicity purposes.

Field research – the process of looking for information that is not yet published and must be obtained in surveys that are made out specifically for a purpose (questionnaires, personal interviews, focus groups, etc.)

Flash mob – an event participated by a large group of people who assemble suddenly in a public place, perform an unusual and pointless act for a brief time, then disperse. The term is generally applied only to gatherings organized via telecommunications, social media, or viral emails.

Flesch formula – a test used to assess the difficulty level of writing based on the number of syllables and sentences per 100 words.

Focus groups – a qualitative research technique in which a group of about 7–10 people is invited to a neutral venue to discuss a market-research question, is also known as a group discussion.

Fog index (or Gunning Fog index) – a readability test designed to show how easy or difficult a text is to read. The Gunning Fog index gives the number of years of education that your reader hypothetically needs to understand the paragraph or text. The Gunning Fog index formula implies that short sentences written in plain English achieve a better score than long sentences written in complicated language.

G

General population – a set of entities concerning which statistical interferences are to be drawn, often based on a random sample taken from the population.

Guaranteed circulation – the audited circulation of a magazine that is used as a basis for calculating advertising rates.

H

Hit – a visit to a particular page on a website by a webvisitor. A hit refers to a number of people who visit a particular Internet page.

Headings – HTML headings are blocks of code that are placed around certain words, styling and providing a certain level of prominence in the overall page structure. Heading tags range from <h1> through <h6>, however, in the modern SEO world the first three hold the most importance. Tags <h1> through <h3> should all contain the primary keyword space throughout the page with the <h1> and <h2> tags being above the website fold.

I

Indoctrination booklet – a guideline for new employees and visitors, explaining “rules of game” to newcomers.

Institutional booklet – provides information about socially useful activity and charitable initiatives of a company, story of its success, development, expansion, outlines corporate philosophy.

Integrated commercial – a commercial of more than one product or service.

Internal Link – internal links are links from your page's content to another page or section on the same domain. Internal links are important when it comes to On-Site SEO. 

Internet PR – a tool that allows companies and organizations to disseminate information without relying solely on mainstream publications and communicate directly with the public, customers and prospects in the World Wide Web.

K

Keyword – a keyword is a word or phrase that is used to optimize a website or webpage. Selecting keywords is one of the most important tasks in SEO work and selecting the right keywords in the outset can either make or break you. It's important to note that the keyword "Miami vacation" and "vacation Miami" will produce different search results, so the order and positioning of the words within the phrase is just as important.

Keyword Density – the keyword density is the number of times a keyword appears on a page in relation to the total number of words. Optimal keyword density ranges from 2% to 5% with anything considerably over 5% being construed as SPAM and anything considerably lower than 2% being construed as not keyword reach enough and thus less relevant. It's important when writing your content that your primary keyword is evenly distributed throughout the page, making sure that it appears in the first and last sentence of the content as well as evenly spaced throughout the balance of the words.

Keyword Stuffing – keyword stuffing is the over usage of a keyword in content or meta keyword tags, something that used to be popular many years ago, but is now frowned upon as a Black-Hat SEO technique. Keyword stuffing is achieved in various different ways which include placing the phrase multiple times within the Meta tags while combined with other words in different combinations, applying the same color to the keywords as the background making them invisible, using the <noscript> tag, and using CSS z-positioning. All of these practices will get you demoted and sometimes de-indexed by search engines like Google.

L

Leaflet – a sheet of paper with printed information that is given out as part of an advertising or information campaign; distributed in crowded places, pasted up, or sent by mail.

Link Bait – Link Bait refers to content that is created in order to garner as many links to it as possible. Since backlinks are one of the primary drivers of SERP positioning, many SEO efforts include the creation of content with the primary goal to get many links back to that content as possible.

Link Farm – a link farm is a group of sites that all hyperlink to one another, back and forth in an oscillating fashion.While link farms used to be advantageous, they don't have large relevancy today since the two-way links make it confusing for search engines to determine which site is the vendor and which is the promoting site.

Link Juice – this is the SEO linking power of a page and usually refers to the combined sum of the link power of all the pages linking into it. You'll hear the term link juice referenced when quantifying the power of a certain link or a page that those links lead to.

Link Pyramid – a link pyramid is a very powerful form of Off-Site SEO backlinking that involves the creation of a linking structure that is extremely powerful. Think of the strength in physical form that a real pyramid has and how the reference of force is physically supported by the structure itself and how that has stood the test of time. Link Pyramids generally have three tiers: a bottom tier with low level links, a middle with medium level links, and a top level with high level EDU, GOV or other authority links. The bottom links link to the middle, the middle links link to the top, and the top links to you site.

Link Sculpting – when you implement attributes to links to affect their behaviour in how search engines interpret them, you're engaging in link sculpting. The most common form of link sculpting is using the Nofollow or Dofollow link scuilpting forms. The Nofollow links tell a search engine not to follow a link, thus leaving the link juice on the page, while a Dofollow link tells a search engine to continue on to follow that link thus disseminating the link juice to the next page.

Link Wheel – a link wheel is a form of linking that links one site to another while also linking back to your site as well. The links flow in a sort of wheel format with the spokes being back to your site in the center. When done correctly, a link wheel can be a powerful form of SEO boost for your website and the most effective forms of link wheels are organically fashioned ones that utilize social media platforms as their linking platforms.

Long Tail Keyword – a long tail keyword is a keyword that fas a minimum of at least 3 words and any maximum number of words. Long tail keywords are used by marketers trying to target a specific niche, question or topic, which produce near similar results to a broader search term of lessor keywords but may have higher competition. Long tail keywords are a great way to rank at the top of search engine results for terms that may otherwise be more difficult to rank for.

M

Mainstream – 1) most popular and/or common current of something, e.g. art, politics, etc.; 2) a conditional concept for description of moderate-progressive trends, which combine elements of traditional and modern stylistics.

Media analysis – a close, and at the same time, complex scrutiny of media pick-ups, including qualitative and quantitative methods of content analysis, plus expert analysis based on conclusions and commentaries from senior analysts. Media analysis helps to complete and systematize the information attained by media monitoring.

Media monitoring – search and selection of materials in mass media (print, online, newswires, TV and radio) according to specific key markers (it can be a word, a phrase, a theme or sphere of activity) and time frames defined by you.

Meta Description – the meta description tag is one of  the meta tags that are still used by search engines to display search results. This along with the title tag is used to display the name and description of the link on SERPs to the user searching for information.

Meta Keywords – meta keywords are part of a set of Meta Tags that appear in the header of website. Meta keywords used to be prominently used in search engine ranking but have no interpreted value of importance today. Instead of using meta keywords, search algorithms now use other tags such as heading tags, site content, keyword density and backlinking keywords to determine search engine rankings.

N

National rating – the relative audience or viewership achieved by a television or radio program, used as an indication of its relative popularity, in the territory of the country.

Newsletter – a report that contains matters of interest to a specific target group (company employees, mass media, clients, partners, etc.), and is regularly sent to them. There is no fixed format – there are no obligatory requirements to its structure and content.

Nofollow Links – search engines spider the web looking for information and in turn ranking the relevance of sites in its indexes. Nofollow links are an HTML attribute associated with  hyper links that tell a search engine to not associated with hyper links that tell a search engine's traffic at that page, almost like a dead end. Nofollow links are optimal when it comes to making sure that your own page is optimized to the highest level possible by not allowing the link juice to pass through it. 

O

Offensive spending – the practice of spending on advertising which aims to attract users of a rival brand or to attack the competition.

Off-Site SEO – Off-Site SEO are the methods and practices of performing SEO work that happen away from the site itself. Off-Site SEO mainly involves the use of heavy backlinking, social media shares, authority site content creation (i.e. squidoo.com, youtube.com, etc.), article spinning, and so on. Off-Site SEO is very labor-intensive part of the SEO trade.

On-Site SEO – any work that is done on the website to increase the effectiveness of its SEO is considered On-Site SEO. This includes any HTML work, content creation, internal linking, setup, keyword distribution, and other related efforts. 

Opinion poll – an essential means by which the views of general public are ascertained, e.g. habits, inclinations, motives of behavior, opinions, etc.

Outdoor advertising – graphic, text or any other type of informative advertising in the open air, including advertising on the outside of a building, in public transport, on roadsides, at bus stops, or skywriting, using posters on hoardings or neon signs, etc.

P

Page Title – the HTML page title is the descriptive site title detail that resides withing the page's <title> tags. This information is displayed by the search engines and is used in ranking the site on the SERPs. A good page title tag should be descriptive but not superfluous and should accomplish its goal in around 70 characters (the cut off point for most SERPs) with the use of the primary keyword. 

Page Rank – one of the most important descriptors of a web page, the page rank is a web page's rank in relevancy on the Internet, ranging from 0 to 10. Sites like Facebook, Twitter, and Google's home page achieve Page ranks of 9 and 10, while lower trafficked sites have lesser page ranks.

Panel – a group of people or entities that allow their attitude, views of a certain situation or activity to be monitored for research purposes.

Panda – the Google Panda is a change in the algorithm for Google's search results that was released in February of 2011. The effects of Panda were to demote low quality sites and promote sites with high quality well researched information. The effects of this release were widespread, making huge shifts in positioning on SERPs forcing some businesses to lose large volumes of search traffic while others were able to gain it.

Penguin – the Google Penguin was one of the latest major updates released to Google's algorithm on April 24th, 2012, that began to demote visibility of listings on SERPs that violated Google's Webmaster guidelines and employed Black-Hat SEO tactics such as cloaking, keyword stuffing, and the creation of duplicate content.

Pinging – pinging is a technique that notifies the search engines to go out and seek data from a URL. This is required because a lot of the link building that is done happens on low, or no page rank site that do not get visited often or at all by the search engines. When a search engine is pinged to go out and index a URL you can be certain that the hyperlink to your site or to another link in a link pyramid that's pointing to your site, will be found and indexed.

Position – the location of a print ad on a page within a print vehicle.

PPC – pay-per-click advertising, or PPC, is a form of paid search engine advertising that marketers use to get their message out to the masses on a large scale very quickly. PPC ads show up on the right side of SERPs and are now also being implemented on Facebook, YouTube videos, and more recently on sites like Twitter.

PPV – pay per view ads, or PPV, is a type of advertising that is utilized by marketers to distribute ads to a user base that has expressly agreed to receive those ads. An example of this free software downloads or online services such as Pandora that use PPV ads to display advertisements on a periodic basis while providing a free service.

PR agency – an independent organization that advises on a company’s public relations, develops and implements programs to manage a company’s publicity, image and affairs with consumers and other relevant publics.

PR audit – a broad-scale, loosely structured research study exploring a company’s public relations and communication both internally and externally. Findings of such research help to indicate the problem areas of the company’s communication policy and correct them in order to increase the effect of its activity.

Presentation, Opening ceremony – presentation of a company, products, or services for prospective and existing partners.

Press clipping – a selection of all relevant text information, collected for a specified time period. Such form of reports is effective for tracking media’s reaction to a specific theme, event or press release.

Press club – regular communication with journalists in informal atmosphere with participation of top-persons of a company or market.

Press conference – a meeting to which media are invited by a government body, organization or company seeking to make public announcement, usually to gain favorable publicity or to offset some negative reaction.

Press kit – a package of background and promotional material relating to a product, distributed to the media by a press agent or publicity department. It typically includes a press release, backgrounder, fact sheet, annual report, biographies of key participants, photos or other images, program of event, collateral advertising material, etc.

Press release – a special announcement usually in the form of a written piece, giving facts to be reported in the media.

Press tour, Open day – acquaintance of journalists with a company business processes, operating activity, or a process of service rendering.

Product placement – a form of advertising and promotion in which products are placed as props on TV shows or/and movies to gain exposure.

PR services – organization of public relations and shaping of public opinion (awareness) (a press conference, presentation, roundtable, etc.)

Public service announcement (PSA) – a type of advertisement for not-for profit organizations that run on time and space donated by the media. Advertising with a message in the interest of the public, usually run free of charge.

R

Readership or Audience – number of people who read a particular publication as opposed to the number of people included in its circulation.

Reception, Cocktail party – meeting of a company with its clients and partners on a formal or solemn occasion.

Reference guide – a document containing information about social package, corporate standards, etc., emphasis on support materials; it is intended for inner use.

Referrer String – referrer strings are used in affiliate and web marketing to pinpoint campaigns and where a lead or referral came from. This is important to some marketers running paid  advertisements to be able to gauge the successes of their various efforts throughout the web. Web programming dictates that after the web page name, a question mark can indicates the start of any variables that may be appended to a URL, thus resulting in a Referrer String.

Research study – a material based on information obtained by the use of interviews, public opinion polls, reviews or analyses, which are published to draw attention of audience and to demonstrate value of product or service.

Robots.txt – this is a file that resides in the roof directory of your website, that provides instructions to search engines on any folders, or files that it shouldn't index. Most people don't want search engines seeing all files that contain sensitive information.

Rollout – the process by which a company introduces a new product to different geographical markets or consumer segments.

Rotation – a number of different advertisements, repeated in rotating order during a campaign.

RSS Feed – a rich site summary (RSS) feed is a standardized format that allows for the automatic update and syndication of content on sites that have frequent changes and entires such as blogs and other news sites. The RSS feed format provides a standard in formatting that allows ease of redistribution of either full or summarized data, metadata and publishing information. 

S

Sanbox – Google Sandfox Effect is an effect that happens when a newly formed domain name's link juice is not fully weighted due to filtering from Google in order to prevent SPAMMERS from reaching the first page in SERPs by registering multiple domain names quikly and actively promoting them.

Sampling – a promotional activity in which target audience or consumers are allowed to experience a good or a service free of charge or at a greatly reduced cost.

Search Algorithm – a formula devised by brilliant minds that wighs and takes multiple factors into account when reaching a determination for search results page ranking. The Google search algorithm combines many factors including the aged domain factor, website link popularity, On-Site SEO elements, and Off-Site SEO elements. No one outside of Google knows the exact current algorithm and the total weight of each of the factors that are taken into account or precisely how they impact search results but there are very good guidelines available. 

Search engine optimization (SEO) – the process of improving the visibility, volume and quality of traffic to a web site or a web page in search engines via the “natural” or un-paid (“organic” or “algorithmic”) search results. Typically the higher a site’s “page rank” (i.e. the earlier it comes in the search result list), the more visitors (potential clients) it will receive from search engines. This gives a web site web presence.

Search Engine Reputation Management (SERM) — complex of actions aimed at excluding negative feedback about a company, products or services from search system results. In other words, clearance of search results.

SEM – SEM is the business of search engine marketing, the industry that search engine optimization specialists fall under. SEM is used to refer to not only SEO efforts but also paid search engine marketing efforts as well.

Seminar, Roundtable – an event involving a small group of people, from specialized media mostly, to discuss and debate on an issue or to acquaint with products, technological processes in a company.

SERP – Search Engine Ranking Pages, also known as SERPs, are the end listing results pages of queries to search engines. SERPs will generally include a title and brief description of each listing related to the keywords searched along with a link to that content. In SEO the goal is to dominate the first page of SERPs.

Share (or Share of audience) – the total percentage of potential audience in a radio station’s total service area listening during a particular period of time.

Sitemap – a sitemap is a page that's created to aid browsers in crawling a site. A sitemap provides a hierarchical link structure of page on a website that are accessible and permissible to be crawled.

Social Media – social media is a term that refers to the types of sites that have increased in popularity in the past several years that base themselves on end user interactions in social and collaborative format. Examples of such popular sites are Facebook, Google Plus, and Twitter.

Special event –a planned promotional happening or a news hook that has a central focus and captures the attention and involvement of the target audience, used for attainment of PR objectives, requires financial outlays and organizational preparation.

Spider – a spider is a web-robot that's instructed to go out and crawl the Internet for data used for the purposes of website indexing and rankings. Google has multiple spiders that it sends out, some that are dedicated to deep-indexing the Web, others for more periodic updates to web content, and even others for algorithm adjustments such as the Google Panda and Google Penguin.

Statement for the press – a specially prepared announcement or reply directed at members of the news media for the purpose of announcing something claimed as having news value that is made public, such as by a politician.

Storyboard – a sequence of drawings that give the outline of a film or TV advertisement. A poster showing a series of miniature TV-screens depicting the sequence of scenes in a commercial with the words to accompany each picture written below it.

T

Target audience – the primary group of people that something, usually an advertising campaign, is aimed at appealing to. A target audience can be people of a certain age group, gender, marital status, etc.

Think piece or Analytic article – an article that analyses a topic currently in the media, similar to by-liner, often composed by people who know the topic from within rather than journalists.

W

Website audit – a review of website performance against online marketing best practices. The concept of a website audit is most often associated with Search Engine Optimization, but also is often applied to any aspect of online marketing. It covers a wide range of analysis, including (among others) sources of traffic, internal flows within a site, tracking and measurement of website statistics, revenue generated with various parts of this site, etc.

Website Fold – the website fold is the section of the website that is viewable to the natural eye prior to getting cut off by the browser and forcing a user to scroll. The website fold will vary from screen resolution to screen resolution, however it's typically 600 to 850 pixels down from the top of the browser. 

White-Hat SEO – White-Hat SEO techniques are those that follow the rules and standards of the SEO world and also adhere to Google's Webmaster Guidelines. White-Hat SEO techniques, while more time intensive, offer the largest long-term gains for your website's ranking on SERPs. These techniques include quality content creation, proper On-Site SEO configuration, and organically looking Off-Site SEO linking.

Working media budget – amount of advertising appropriation allocated to media advertising, not intended for media buying, unlike other expenditures, e.g. production of advertising materials, fees to authors, packing and delivery of samples, etc.